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19 March 2019

CULTIVATION OF BUTTON MUSHROOMS WITH DOUBLE PROFIT

CULTIVATION OF BUTTON MUSHROOMS WITH DOUBLE PROFIT


Button Mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus)
Mushrooms me Button mushrooms ki demand bahut hi jyada hai dusri mushrooms ki tulna me puri duniya me. Button mushrooms dikhne me bahut hi achhi hoti hai aur fleshy bhi jyada hai dusri mushrooms ki tulna me issliye eski demand bahut jyada hai.

Button mushrooms ki farming bahut hi asani se ki ja sakti hai. Koi bhi khali jagah me hut banakar ya room me aap eski infrastructure taiyar karke button mushrooms farming kar sakte ho.


Button Mushroom Farming/Cultivation Stages


Mushrooms farming ke liye kuch khas steps ya stages hoti hai


Compost preparing.

Spawn-run.
Casing.
Cropping and harvesting.
Marketing.

How to grow or cultivate Button Mushrooms (Agaricus Bisporus)



Button Mushrooms

Button mushrooms ki farming ke 20 se 30 centigrade temperature jarurat padti hai. Sabse pahle button mushroom ke farming kaise hoti hai uske bare me jante jai. Button mushrooms ki India me jyada demand hai kyuki ye bahut hi fleshy hote hai aur asani se cultivate kiya ja sakti hai dusri season me bhi winter ke elaba. Pahle to mushrooms only seasonal crop thi lekin abhi button mushroom ki farming India me temperature control karke ki jati hai. Button mushrooms ki farming maximum har country me hoti hai isliye ye easily available mushroom hai.


Button mushrooms ki farming ke liye aapko jyada capital ki jarurat nahi padegi. Aap apni ghar me ya khali jagah me infrastructure taiyar karke ya hut banakar eski farming kar sakte ho. Button mushrooms farming 50% munafa hai agar aap dyan denge to jyada munafa bhi ho sakta hai.


Mushroom farming ke sabse important chij hai temperature. Agar apki area ki temperature ghatta ya badta hai to apko temperature maintain karna hoga. Button mushroom ke liye 20 se 30 centigrade temperature required hoti hai issliye winter season best rahti hai mushrooms farming ke liye. Agar aap invest jyada karke setup taiyar karte ho to har season me farming kar sakte ho.

Agar aap Spawn taiyar karna chahte ho to bahut kharcha ayenge aur proper guidance ya training ki jarurat padegi issliye sabse pahle ready made spawn se start karna chahiye. Mushrooms ki koi seed nahi hoti hai kyuki ye ek vegetative fungi hai hai ishliye artificially tarike se eski seed taiyar ki jati hai jise Spawn kahte hai. Spawn prepare karne ke liye ek laboratory ki jarurat padti hai. Mushrooms ke hi cell me se Spawn taiyar ki jati hai gehu (Wheat) ki dane me. Ye ek long process hai joki puri tarike se hygiene maintain karke lab me taiyar ki jati hai.  Ye bahut hi costly hota hai aur eske liye proper guidance ki jarurat padti hai. Spawn aapko koi nearest Mushroom Farm se mil jayenge ya aap online bhi kharid sakte ho. Lekin mere hisab se nearest farm se lena hi thik rahega. Spawn aapko 20 Rs se 70 Rs/Kg se mil jayenge.


Button mushroom farming ke liye aapko ye stages se gujarna padega jo ki 2 mahine ke hote hai.

Medium/Substrate/Composting.

Sterilization.
Spreading.
Spawning.
Casing.
Fruiting.

Infrastructure/Production Room: Sabse pahle infrastucture kaisi honi chahiye mushroom farming ke liye jante hai. Aapke pas koi khali room ho to aap mushroom farming kar sakte hai chahe koi bhi room ho concrete, cottage, ya hut.


Permanent infrastructure ke liye kuch machine install karni padti hai jaise ki.


Four Self contented AHU's (Air Handling Unit).

Boiler jiski capacity 150 kg steam generanation ho.
Steel racks in the growing room and iron grating in the tunnel.
Water pipe line and fitting.
Electric wiring.
Other equipment like thermometer, sprayers, forks, harvesting trays.

Production room ki size kuch iss tarah honi chahiye


Cropping room - 25 x 13 x 13 feet


Corridor - 52 x 6 x 13 feet

Composting Yard - 40 x 40 feet


Pasteurization Tunnel - 15 x 7 x 12 feet


Boiler room - 10 x 10 x 12 feet 


Packaging room - 15 x 10 x 12 feet

  
Composting: Compost taiyar karne ke liye medium ya substrate chahiye jisme fungus grow karenge. Button mushrooms ke liye wheat straw, paddy straw, anaj ke chilke ya bhusa use kar sakte ho. Lekin straw ekdam achhi quality ke honi chahiye matlab naya. Straw ko 1.5 se 2 inches ki size me cutting karna hai bhusa banane ke liye.

Button mushrooms ke Compost taiyar karne ke 3 methods ya process hote hai jaise ki,

Indoor Method: Indoor method sabse new tarika hai compost taiyar karne ke. Iss method me compost taiyar hone me 12 din lagti hai joki sabse fastest method hai compost taiyar karne ke. Iss process me Bunkers ka use hota hai.


Indoor method se compost taiyar karne ke liye chije lagti hai

Wheat straw - 1000 kg
Chicken Manure - 400 kg
Wheat Bran - 70 kg
Urea - 4.5 kg
Gypsum - 30 kg

Iss method ki steps kuch iss tarah hai

Phase I (Outdoor composting state)

Mixing straw + chicken manure with proper wetting and stacking
Break open the stack, add water and restack
add other ingredients and make a high aerobic stack
1 Turning
2 turning
3 turning and add gypsum
4 turning fill the tunnel
Filling day (Phase I over)

Phase II (Pasteurizing tunnel/Bunkers)

PPC 45-52 C
Kill at 59 C for 4-6 hours
POPC at 45-48 C
POPC over and cool the compost at 25 c


Phase II over and spawning

Long Term Method: Long term method me compost taiyar hone me lagbhag 28-30 days lagta hai. Iss method me aapko ye chize lagenge compost taiyar karne ke liye

Wheat straw or Paddy Straw - 300 kg
Wheat Bran - 15 kg
Can - 9 kg
Potash - 3 kg
Urea - 3 kg
Super phosphate - 3 kg
Gypsum - 20 kg

Iss method ki steps kuch iss tarah hoti hai,

Watering of the straw

Watering of the ingredients
Mixing straw + ingredients with maintain moisture up to 72-75%.
Pile formation
#1 Turning
#2 Turning
#3 Turning + added gypsum
#4, 5, 6, 7 Turning
Break open the Pile
Spawning if no ammonia
Added 1.5 L formaldehyde + 50 g of Bavistin + 40 L of water/ton compost
Cover with polythene for 48 hours
Remove the cover shake the compost and then spawn 

Mushrooms
Button Mushrooms

Short Term Method - Short term method ko log jyada apnate hai business karne ke liye. Iss method me II phase hote hai. First Phase 10-12 days ki hoti hai. Second Phase 7 days ki hoti hai. Short term method me ye chije lagti hai

Wheat straw - 1000 kg
Chicken Manure - 400 kg
Wheat Bran - 70 kg
Urea - 4.5 kg
Gypsum - 30 kg

Iss method ki steps kuch iss tarah hai

Phase I (Outdoor composting state)

Mixing straw + chicken manure with proper wetting and stacking
Break open the stack, add water and restack
add other ingredients and make a high aerobic stack
1st Turning
2 turning
3 turning and add gypsum
4 turning fill the tunnel
Filling day (Phase I over)

Phase II (Pasteurizing tunnel)

PPC 45-52 C
Kill at 59 C 4-6 hours
POPC at 45-48C
POPC over and cool the compost at 25 c

Phase II over and spawning


Spawning: Spawning ke liye hygiene ka maintain karna bahut hi jaruri hai issliye pahle spawning ke liye cemented floor ko formaldehyde liquid with 2% water ke sath milakar spray kar le spawning ke 24 ghante pahle phir 1 kg compost me 500 to 750 g spawn milakar 10 kg compost per polythene ke bags taiyar kare ya polythene ki bed taiyar kare production room me phir polythene ki bags ko paper ya plastic se cover kar de aur cropping room me rakh de. 12-13 din ke polythene ke bags ko chod de 23 C temperature me aur agar paper ke cover hai to unme pani ka spray karte rahe har din 1 bar. Plastic ke cover hone pani ki spray karne ki jarurat nahi padegi. 12-15 days me spawn run ho jayenge aur 20 lagenge fungus grow karne ke liye ya vegetative growing ke liye.

Casing:  Button mushroom farming ke ye sabse jaruri part hai. Casing ke bina mushroom grow nahi honge. Iss process me mushroom ki growing ke liye casing kiya jata hai. Casing ke liye 80% gai ka gobar jo ki 1.5 sal purana with 20% coco peat (old garden soil) use hota hai. Coco peat (Coir Pith) aapko nearest bade Mushroom farms ya online bhi manga sakte hai. Coco peat ki price 20 se 30 Rs/kg hai. Coco peat ko 24 ghante bhigone ke rakhne ke bad gobar mila kar casing soil taiyar kiya jata hai. Bags me aap upper me casing soil dal dijiye mushroom grow karne ke liye. Oyster mushroom farming eski jarurat nahi padti. Casing soil ki layer kam se kam 2 se 2.5 inches ki honi chahiye. Casing ke bad aapko daily water spray karte rahna hai. Casing ke liye 25 c temperature ke jarurat padti hai phir fruiting ke liye temperature ko down karna padta hai 15-17 c with RH 80% mycelium run hone ke liye.



Button Mushrooms Farm


Fruiting/Mycelium Running:  Fruiting ke dauran apko temperature thodi kam karni pedegi. Agar aap September me mushroom farming start karte ho to apki room ki temperature automatically kam ho jayegi lekin agar dusro mahine me lagange to aapko pani ka chirkao karke temperature ko control karna padega. Aap room ki walls ya floor ko wet karke room ki temperature ko controlled karna hai. Aap AC ka bhi use kar sakte ho. Iss process ke dauran fresh air ki jarurat hoti hai spawn ko. Ish stage me ki pani jarurat padti hai bags ko lekin direct bags me pani na dale spray karke pani dale humidity and temperature check karke. Bags ki temperature room ki temperature se jyada honi chahiye. Thermometer jarur rakhe temperature check karne ke liye.


Fruiting ke samay aapko moisture ya humidity ka bhi khyal rakhna hai. Aap humidifier ka istemal kar sakte ho aapko 75% se 80% humidity maintain karni hai iss dauran.


Marketing: 25 days ke bad apki mushroom puri tarah grow kar jayenge aur aap ise thodkar market me fresh bech sakte ho ya isse pani se dhokar pack karke wholesale me bech sakte ho. Ek bag se aap 3 bar mushroom thodkar bech sakte ho. Wholesale rate apko 250 se 300 Rs mil jayenge. Aap agar market me supply karenge ya bechenge to apko 350 se 450 Rs tak bhi rates mil sakti hai aur usse jyada bhi quality ke upper depend karti hai.

Aap apni mushrooms ko sukha ke ya dry karke ya powder banakar bhi bech sakte ho. Mushrooms fresh bhi bechi jati hai aur un-fresh bhi.

Mushroom farming bahut hi sensitive farming hai isme fungal infection aur bahut sare bimari ke bajah se mushroom farming me kabhi-kabhi mushroom ki grow thik se nahi hoti ya spawn mar jate hai issliye bahut hygiene maintain karke, temperature, humidity ka bhi dyan rakhke iski farming karni chahiye khas karke bina training ke nahi karni chahiye.

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