OYSTER MUSHROOMS FARMING (CULTIVATION) WITH LOTS OF PROFIT

OYSTER MUSHROOMS FARMING (CULTIVATION) WITH LOTS OF PROFIT


Oyster mushrooms
Oyster mushrooms

Mushroom ek vegetative fungus hai joki khaya ja sakta hai. Mushrooms ki nutritional value bahut jyada hai aur medicine me bhi use hota hai. Mushrooms antioxidants bhi hai. Kuch-kuch mushrooms jahrile hote hai use khaya nahi jata hai lekin unse medicine taiyar hota hai. Mushroom ek bahut hi profitable crop hai. Mushrooms bahut hi phaidemand antioxidant hai humhare health ke liye. Mushroom me vitamins, protein, iron, magnesium, minerals, fiber, bahut hi jyada matra me payi jati hai.

Sabse achhi bat hai mushroom me isme nato fat hoti hai naki cholesterol aur carbohydrate ki matra bahut hi kam hai ishliye ye sabhi ke liye faidemand hai. Khaskar diabetes, heart, cancer aur TB jaise patient ke liye. Mushrooms se koi medicine bhi banayi jati hai. Mushrooms ko hum koi tarah se use karte cooking karke, dried mushrooms, powder mushroom.

Mushroom se hum koi dish bana sakte hai. Mushroom cultivation ya farming ek indoor farming hai ishliye koi bhi mushroom farming asani se kar sakte hai.

Government ke taraf se free me training de jati hai ya workshops chalaye jate hai. Private farm me bhi eski training de jati hai. Mushrooms ke liye weather khafi thandi honi chahiye yani ki 20 se 25 Celsius tak temperature hone se achhi mushrooms farming ki ja sakti hai. Ishliye humhare desh me Uttar bharat me eski sabse jyada farming hoti hai. Agar aapke pass cooling system hai to aap har season me eski farming kar sakte ho nahi to September ya October mahine se shuru kar sakte ho. Mushrooms laghbhag 2 mahino me ready ho jati hai bechhne ke liye. Iss business me 50% se 60% labh (munafa) hai ishliye mushroom ko cash crop bhi kaha jata hai. Agar aap bada setup lagate ho to aur jyada munafa hai.

ICAR-IIHR
ICAR
MUSHROOMS FARMING TRAINING 
Khan Mushrooms Farm and Training Centre



India me khaskar 3 hi variety popular hai ya demand hai jaise ki Milky mushrooms, Oyster (Dhingri) mushrooms aur White Button mushrooms. Oyster mushrooms ki cost thodi kam hai Button mushroom ki tulna me.

Oyster mushrooms ki farming bahut hi kam kharche me ki ja sakti hai. Koi bhi choti si jagah me aap ya room me aap eski bags lagakar eski farming kar sakte hai.

Oyster Mushroom Farming/Cultivation Stages

Oyster Mushrooms farming ke liye kuch khas steps ya stages hoti hai

Compost preparing.
Spawn-run.
Cropping and harvesting.
Marketing.

How to grow Oyster Mushrooms (Pleurotus Ostreatus) in an indoor setup


Oyster mushrooms in a polythene bag
Oyster mushrooms in a polythene bag

Oyster mushroom easily grow ho jati hai dusro mushroom ki tulna me kyuki oyster mushroom me casing ki jarurat nahi padi isliye thodi asani hoti hai farmers ke liye ya grower ke liye.  Ishliye India me jyadatar farmers ya businessmam oyster mushrooms ko prefer karte hai cultivation ke liye. Oyster mushroom ki farming India me maximum har state me hoti hai isliye ye easily available mushroom hai.

Oyster mushrooms ki farming ke liye aapko jyada capital ki jarurat nahi padti. Aap apni ghar me ya khali jagah me cottage ya hut banakar eski farming kar sakte ho. Agar aap compost taiyar nahi karna chahte ho to aap mushroom farm se ready made compost kharidkar bhi mushroom farming kar sakte ho.

Oyster mushrooms farming ke liye aapko
  • Infrastructure/Growing room ya production room. 
  • Spawn (mushrooms ki seed)
  • Wheat/Paddy straw.
  • Water.
  • Polythene ki Bags.
  • Bamboo ki Structure ya iron ki Structure.
  • Boiler ya heating chamber.
  • Formalin.
  • Bavistin (Carbendazin).
  • Lime (Optional).
  • Thermometer.
Mushroom farming ke sabse important chij hai temperature. Agar apki area ki temperature ghatta ya badta hai to apko temperature maintain karna hoga. Oyster mushroom ke liye 20 se 25 centigrade temperature required hoti hai.

Agar aap Spawn taiyar karna chahte ho to bahut kharcha ayenge aur proper guidance ya training ki jarurat padegi issliye sabse pahle ready made spawn se start karna chahiye. Mushrooms ki koi seed nahi hoti hai kyuki ye ek vegetative fungi hai hai ishliye artificially tarike se eski seed taiyar ki jati hai jise Spawn kahte hai. Spawn prepare karne ke liye ek laboratory ki jarurat padti hai. Mushrooms ke hi cell me se Spawn taiyar ki jati hai gehu (Wheat) ki dane me. Ye ek long process hai joki puri tarike se hygiene maintain karke lab me taiyar ki jati hai.  Ye bahut hi costly hota hai aur eske liye proper guidance ki jarurat padti hai.

Spawn aapko koi nearest Mushroom Farm se mil jayenge ya aap online bhi kharid sakte ho. Lekin mere hisab se nearest farm se lena hi thik rahega. Spawn aapko 20 Rs se 70 Rs/Kg se mil jayenge.

Oyster mushroom farming ke liye aapko ye stages se gujarna padega jo ki 2 mahine ke hote hai.

Medium/Substrate.
Sterilization.
Spreading.
Spawning.
Fruiting.

Infrastructure/Production Room: Sabse pahle infrastucture kaisi honi chahiye mushroom farming ke liye jante hai. Aapke pas koi khali room ho to aap mushroom farming kar sakte hai chahe koi bhi room ho concrete, cottage, ya hut.

Room ko door and windows honi chahiye nahi to aap bamboo ki hut bhi bana sakte ho. Mushrooms ki bags ko rakhne ke liye aapko bamboo ya iron ki shelves (rekh) banani hogi ya arial ya hanging position me bhi bags ko rakh sakte hai. Agar aap iron ki shelves banayenge 15 x 15 room ke liye to aapko lagbhag 1.5 se 2 lakh lag jayenge. Agar bamboo ke shelves banayenge to 50,000 K lagenge same room ke liye aur agar khali hanging garden banayenge to 10 se 15 K me ho jayenge.  Shuru karne ke liye bamboo sticks with hanging system thik hai. Agar aap iron ki shelves banayenge to 2.5 feet ke 3 shelves lagaiye aur bich me 2 feet ki khali jagah chhor dijiye kam karne ke liye. Is tarah se aap apni room me shelves banaye and wall ke bich me kuch jagah chor dijiye. Agar aap hanging ya arial method use karenge to aap nylon ki rassi aur bamboo sticks se hanging position me bag rakh sakte hai. agar aap jamin me bags rakhna chahte hai to khali jamin par na rakhe jamin se 5-6 inch uppor lakri ke sahare ya bricks me rakhe. Hawa pass hone ki jagah honi chahiye.

Medium/Substrate: Compost taiyar karne ke liye medium ya substrate chahiye jisme fungus grow karenge. Milky mushrooms ke liye wheat straw, paddy straw, anaj ke chilke ya bhusa use kar sakte ho. Lekin straw ekdam achhi quality ke honi chahiye matlab naya. Straw ko 1.5 se 2 inches cutting karna hai bhusa banane ke liye.

Sterilization:  Iss process me pasteurization ya sterilization kiya jata hai straw ya bhusa ki. Matlab bhusa me se hanikarak micro bacteria ko mara jata hai.  Sterilization do tarike kiya jata hai. Chemical sterilization and hot water treatment ya sterilization. Chemical sterilization ke liye chemical use ki jati hai jaise ki Lime, Bavistin, Formalin. Oyster mushroom farming me aapko chemical sterilization ke bare me batayungi.

Chemical sterilization 200 litres tank me 100 Litre pani bharkar phir 100 ml formalin aur 50 gram Bavastin gholkar bhusa ko 24 hours bhigokar rakhna hai.

Boiling sterilization hi behtar hai chemical sterilization se.

Spreading: Iss process bhusa ko pani se nilakar sukhaya jata hai. Dhoop me nahi aap ghar me ya floor me shed ke ander 24 ghante shukarkar 50% moisture ke sath polythene ke bags me bharna hai. Polythene bag ki size 16 x 18 inches diameter ke honi chahiye.

Spawning: Iss process me bags me bhusa bharkar layering method se Spawn dala jata hai. 10 kg sukha bhusa ke liye 1 kg spawn ki jarurat padegi spawning ke liye. Bags taiyar karne ke liye 16 x 18 inches ke polythene ke bags lagenge.  Bags me bhusa bharne ke bad spawn ko layer ya mix karke dal sakte ho har bhusa ka layer 2 inches ki choni chahiye. Aap bhusa me spawn ko pahle se bhi mix kar sakte ho. Bags bharne ke bad aap 1 cm ke hole kar denge bags me 10 se 12 har bag me air pass ke liye.

 Phir aapko bags ko production room hanging ya metal set-up me 14 se 15 din tak rhakhna hai. Bags rakhne ke pahle production ko sterilized kar le formalin aur pani ki mixture se spray karke aur 4 din tak room ko band rakhe phir aap room me bags rakhe. Phir bag ko band karke rakh dena 15 se 20 din tak fungus grow karne ke liye ya vegetative growing ke liye.  15-20 din ke bad bags me fungus growing karna shuru ho jayega. Production room ki temperature ko daily check karte rahna hai. Room ki temperature 20 se 25 degree Celsius honi chahiye. Aur bag ki temperature bhi note karni hai uske liye alag thermometer aati hai. Bag ki temperature 23 se 28 degrees Celsius honi chahiye.

Fruiting/Mycelium Running:  Fruiting ke dauran apko temperature thodi kam karni pedegi. Agar aap September me mushroom farming start karte ho to apki room ki temperature automatically kam ho jayegi lekin agar dusro mahine me lagange to aapko pani ka chirkao karke temperature ko control karna padega. Aap room ki walls ya floor ko wet karke room ki temperature ko controlled karna hai. Aap AC ka bhi use kar sakte ho. Iss process ke dauran fresh air ki jarurat hoti hai spawn ko. Ish stage me ki pani jarurat padti hai bags ko lekin direct bags me pani na dale spray karke pani dale humidity and temperature check karke. Bags ki temperature room ki temperature se jyada honi chahiye. Thermometer jarur rakhe temperature check karne ke liye.

Fruiting ke samay aapko moisture ya humidity ka bhi khyal rakhna hai. Aap humidifier ka istemal kar sakte ho aapko 70% se 72% humidity maintain karni hai iss dauran.

Ish stage me spawn me se fruit nikalne ki samay ko kahte hai. Iss process me mushroom grow hone ke liye fresh air ki jarurat padti hai. Issliye aap room me exhaust fans bhi laga sakte ho. Lekin exhaust fans floor se 5-6 inch upper lagane honge. Din me kam se kam 6 ghanta fresh air deni hoti hai. First one hour fresh air with exhaust fan phir one hour khali fresh air, phir one hour ke liye room band. Isstarah se 3 cycles puri karni hai puri din last hour fresh air plus exhaust fan on karna hai. Iss tarah se aap apni mushroom ki growth ke hisab se cycling bada bhi sakte ho. 8 se 10 hour ka cycle puri din me de sakte ho. Ish stage aur 25 din me lagenge mushrooms ko grow karne ke liye.

Mushrooms curry
Mushrooms curry
Ye bhi pade
Milky Mushroom farming in a simple method

Marketing: 25 days ke bad apki mushroom puri tarah grow kar jayenge aur aap ise thodkar market me fresh bech sakte ho ya isse pani se dhokar pack karke wholesale me bech sakte ho. Ek bag se aap 3 bar mushroom thodkar bech sakte ho. Wholesale rate apko 200 se 250 Rs mil jayenge. Aap agar market me supply karenge ya bechenge to apko 300 se 400 Rs tak bhi rates mil sakti hai aur usse jyada bhi quality ke upper depend karti hai.

Mushroom farming bahut hi sensitive farming hai isme fungal infection aur bahut sare bimari ke bajah se mushroom farming me kabhi-kabhi mushroom ki grow thik se nahi hoti ya spawn mar jate hai issliye bahut hygiene maintain karke, temperature, humidity ka bhi dyan rakhke iski farming karni chahiye khas karke bina training ke nahi karni chahiye.

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