MUSHROOM FARMING IN A SIMPLE METHOD FROM HOME

MUSHROOM FARMING (CULTIVATION) IN A SIMPLE METHOD FROM HOME


Mushrooms
Mushrooms

Mushroom ek vegetative fungus hai joki khaya ja sakta hai. Mushrooms ki nutritional value bahut jyada hai aur medicine me bhi use hota hai. Mushrooms antioxidants bhi hai. Kuch-kuch mushrooms jahrile hote hai use khaya nahi jata hai lekin unse medicine taiyar hota hai. Mushroom ek bahut hi profitable crop hai. Mushrooms bahut hi phaidemand antioxidant hai humhare health ke liye. Mushroom me vitamins, protein, iron, magnesium, minerals, fiber, bahut hi jyada matra me payi jati hai. Sabse achhi bat hai mushroom me isme nato fat hoti hai naki cholesterol aur carbohydrate ki matra bahut hi kam hai ishliye ye sabhi ke liye faidemand hai. Khaskar diabetes, heart, cancer aur TB jaise patient ke liye. Mushrooms se koi medicine bhi banayi jati hai. Mushrooms ko hum koi tarah se use karte cooking karke, dried mushrooms, powder mushroom.

Mushroom se hum koi dish bana sakte hai. Mushroom cultivation ya farming ek indoor farming hai ishliye koi bhi mushroom farming asani se kar sakte hai.

Humhare desh me abhi bhi log poverty ya kuposhan se jujhh rahe hai hai to mushroom unke liye ek bahut hi asani se paye janewali nutritional food source hai. Mushrooms humhare health ke liye bhi bahut achha hai ye humhe pet ki fungus ki wale bimari se bachate hai jaise ki cancer, Streptococcus, tuberculosis jaise khatarnak bimari se ladne me humhari madat karte hai. Issliye humhari government bhi mushroom farming ya cultivating ko badawa de rahe hai. Khaskar small farmers ko encourage karte hai mushroom farming ke liye aur unhe workshop ke jariye training bhi deti hai.

Government ki taraf se training bhi di jati hai farmers ko ya ladies ko jo mushroom farming karna chahte hai. Small businessman bhi mushroom farming kar sakte hai iski proper traing lekar. Government ke taraf se free me training de jati hai ya workshops chalaye jate hai. Private farm me bhi eski training de jati hai. Mushrooms ke liye weather khafi thandi honi chahiye yani ki 20 se 25 Centigrade tak temperature hone se achhi mushrooms farming ki ja sakti hai. Ishliye humhare desh me Uttar bharat me eski sabse jyada farming hoti hai. Agar aapke pass cooling system hai to aap har season me eski farming kar sakte ho nahi to September ya October mahine se shuru kar sakte ho. Mushrooms laghbhag 2 mahino me ready ho jati hai bechhne ke liye. Iss business me 50% labh (munafa) hai. Agar aap bada setup lagate ho to aur jyada munafa hai.

ICAR-IIHR
ICAR
MUSHROOMS FARMING TRAINING 
Khan Mushrooms Farm and Training Centre


Different type of mushrooms
Different type of mushrooms

Mushroom farming ke liye sabse pahle aapko enke variety ke bare me janna padega. India me paye janewali mushrooms ye hai
  1. White Button Mushrooms.
  2. Oyster Mushrooms.
  3. Cremini Mushrooms.
  4. Milky Mushrooms.
  5. Morel Mushrooms.
  6. Enoki Mushrooms.
India me khaskar 3 hi variety popular hai ya demand hai jaise ki Milky mushrooms, Oyster (Dhingri) mushrooms aur White Button mushrooms.  Mushrooms farming ke ye 3 kism ke mushrooms ko hi chuna jata hai. Oyster mushrooms ki cost thodi kam hai Button mushroom ki tulna me.

Oyster mushrooms ki farming bahut hi kam kharche me ki ja sakti hai. Koi bhi choti si jagah me aap ya room me aap eski bags lagakar eski farming kar sakte hai.

Mushroom Farming/Cultivation Stages

Mushrooms farming ke liye kuch khas steps ya stages hoti hai

Compost preparing.
Spawn-run.
Casing.
Cropping and harvesting.
Marketing.

How to grow Milky Mushrooms (Calocybe indica mushroom)


Milky Mushrooms
Milky Mushrooms

Milky mushroom ki khasiyat ye hai ki aap isse 30 se 40 centigrade temperature me bhi laga sakte hai. Sabse pahle Milky mushroom ke farming kaise hoti hai uske bare me jante jai. Milky mushrooms ki India me jyada demand hai kyuki ye thodi sasti hai aur asani se cultivate kiya ja sakti hai dusri season me bhi winter ke alaba. Kyuki milky mushroom ki farming India me maximum har state me hoti hai isliye ye easily available mushroom hai.

Milky mushrooms ki farming ke liye aapko jyada capital ki jarurat nahi padegi. Aap apni ghar me ya khali jagah me cottage ya hut banakar eski farming kar sakte ho.

Milky mushrooms ke liye aapko
  • Infrastructure/Growing room ya production room. 
  • Spawn (mushrooms ki seed)
  • Wheat/Paddy straw.
  • Water.
  • Casing material.
  • Polythene ki Bags.
  • Bamboo ki Structure ya iron ki Structure.
  • Boiler ya heating chamber.
  • Formalin.
  • Bavistin (Carbendazin).
  • Lime (Optional).
  • Thermometer.
Mushroom farming ke sabse important chij hai temperature. Agar apki area ki temperature ghatta ya badta hai to apko temperature maintain karna hoga. Milky mushroom ke liye 25 se 35 centigrade temperature required hoti hai.

Agar aap Spawn taiyar karna chahte ho to bahut kharcha ayenge aur proper guidance ya training ki jarurat padegi issliye sabse pahle ready made spawn se start karna chahiye. Mushrooms ki koi seed nahi hoti hai kyuki ye ek vegetative fungi hai hai ishliye artificially tarike se eski seed taiyar ki jati hai jise Spawn kahte hai. Spawn prepare karne ke liye ek laboratory ki jarurat padti hai. Mushrooms ke hi cell me se Spawn taiyar ki jati hai gehu (Wheat) ki dane me. Ye ek long process hai joki puri tarike se hygiene maintain karke lab me taiyar ki jati hai.  Ye bahut hi costly hota hai aur eske liye proper guidance ki jarurat padti hai. Spawn aapko koi nearest Mushroom Farm se mil jayenge ya aap online bhi kharid sakte ho. Lekin mere hisab se nearest farm se lena hi thik rahega. Spawn aapko 20 Rs se 70 Rs/Kg se mil jayenge.
Milky mushrooms bags

Milky mushroom farming ke liye aapko ye stages se gujarna padega jo ki 2 mahine ke hote hai.

Medium/Substrate.
Sterilization.
Spreading.
Spawning.
Casing.
Fruiting.

Infrastructure/Production Room: Sabse pahle infrastucture kaisi honi chahiye mushroom farming ke liye jante hai. Aapke pas koi khali room ho to aap mushroom farming kar sakte hai chahe koi bhi room ho concrete, cottage, ya hut.

Room ko door and windows honi chahiye nahi to aap bamboo ki hut bhi bana sakte ho. Mushrooms ki bags ko rakhne ke liye aapko bamboo ya iron ki shelves (rekh) banani hogi ya arial ya hanging position me bhi bags ko rakh sakte hai. Agar aap iron ki shelves banayenge 15 x 15 room ke liye to aapko lagbhag 1.5 se 2 lakh lag jayenge. Agar bamboo ke shelves banayenge to 50,000 K lagenge same room ke liye aur agar khali hanging garden banayenge to 10 se 15 K me ho jayenge.  Shuru karne ke liye bamboo sticks with hanging system thik hai. Agar aap iron ki shelves banayenge to 2.5 feet ke 3 shelves lagaiye aur bich me 2 feet ki khali jagah chhor dijiye kam karne ke liye. Is tarah se aap apni room me shelves banaye and wall ke bich me kuch jagah chor dijiye. Agar aap hanging ya arial method use karenge to aap nylon ki rassi aur bamboo sticks se hanging position me bag rakh sakte hai. agar aap jamin me bags rakhna chahte hai to khali jamin par na rakhe jamin se 5-6 inch uppor lakri ke sahare ya bricks me rakhe. Hawa pass hone ki jagah honi chahiye.

Medium/Substrate: Compost taiyar karne ke liye medium ya substrate chahiye jisme fungus grow karenge. Milky mushrooms ke liye wheat straw, paddy straw, anaj ke chilke ya bhusa use kar sakte ho. Lekin straw ekdam achhi quality ke honi chahiye matlab naya. Straw ko 1.5 se 2 inches cutting karna hai bhusa banane ke liye.

Sterilization:  Iss process me pasteurization ya sterilization kiya jata hai straw ya bhusa ki. Matlab bhusa me se hanikarak micro bacteria ko mara jata hai.  Sterilization do tarike kiya jata hai. Chemical sterilization and hot water treatment ya sterilization. Chemical sterilization ke liye chemical use ki jati hai jaise ki Lime, Bavistin, Formalin. Oyster mushroom farming me aapko chemical sterilization ke bare me batayungi.

Hot water Sterilization ke me boiling karke straw ya bhusa ka sterilized kiya jata hai. Boiling Sterilization ke liye aap Boiler chamber bana sakte hai ya drum bhi use kar sakte hai boiling ke liye. Boiler chamber bahut costly hota hai. Issliye aap drum me bhi boil kar sakte hai bhusa ko pani ke sath.  5 kg bhuse ke liye 35 Litre pani chahiye hot water treatment ke liye.

Boiling method me 65 to 70 degrees me 1 ya 1.5 ghante boiling karna padta hai wheat straw bhusa ke liye lekin agar aap paddy straw ke bhusa use karenge to 30 se 40 minutes tak 80 degree Celsius me bhusa ko boil karenge. Boil karne bad bhusa ko pani me 5-6 ghante ke liye chor dena hai cooling ke liye.

Spreading: Iss process bhusa ko pani se nilakar sukhaya jata hai. Dhoop me nahi aap ghar me ya floor me shed ke ander 24 ghante shukarkar 50% moisture ke sath polythene ke bags me bharna hai. Polythene bag ki size 16 x 18 inches ke honi chahiye.

Spawning: Iss process me bags me bhusa bharkar layering method se Spawn dala jata hai. 5 kg paddy straw me 1 kg spawn dala jata hai. Ek bag me 4 se 5 layer honi chahiye bhusa aur spawn ki. Bags me 2 inches ki ek bhusa ka layer honi chahiye.  Bhu0sa bharne ke bad bags ko band kar de. Bags me bhusa aur spawn dalne bad bags me 1 cm ke 10-12 holes kar de air pass karne ke liye.  Bags rakhne ke pahle production ko sterilized kar le formalin aur pani ki mixture se spray karke aur 4 din tak room ko band rakhe phir aap room me bags rakhe. Phir bag ko band karke rakh dena 15 se 20 din tak fungus grow karne ke liye ya vegetative growing ke liye.  15-20 din ke bad bags me fungus growing karna shuru ho jayega.

Casing:  Iss process me milky mushroom ki growing ke liye casing kiya jata hai. Casing ke liye 80% gai ka gobar jo ki 1.5 sal purana with 20% coco peat use hota hai. Coco peat (Coir Pith) aapko nearest bade Mushroom farms ya online bhi manga sakte hai. Coco peat ki price 20 se 30 Rs/kg hai. Coco peat ko 24 ghante bhigone ke rakhne ke bad gobar mila kar casing soil taiyar kiya jata hai. Bags me aap upper me casing soil dal dijiye mushroom grow karne ke liye. Oyster mushroom farming eski jarurat nahi padti. Casing soil ki layer kam se kam 2 se 2.5 inches ki honi chahiye. Casing ke bad 25 din ke liye bags ko chor de fruiting ke liye.



Fruiting/Mycelium Running:  Fruiting ke dauran apko temperature thodi kam karni pedegi. Agar aap September me mushroom farming start karte ho to apki room ki temperature automatically kam ho jayegi lekin agar dusro mahine me lagange to aapko pani ka chirkao karke temperature ko control karna padega. Aap room ki walls ya floor ko wet karke room ki temperature ko controlled karna hai. Aap AC ka bhi use kar sakte ho. Iss process ke dauran fresh air ki jarurat hoti hai spawn ko. Ish stage me ki pani jarurat padti hai bags ko lekin direct bags me pani na dale spray karke pani dale humidity and temperature check karke. Bags ki temperature room ki temperature se jyada honi chahiye. Thermometer jarur rakhe temperature check karne ke liye.

Fruiting ke samay aapko moisture ya humidity ka bhi khyal rakhna hai. Aap humidifier ka istemal kar sakte ho aapko 70% se 72% humidity maintain karni hai iss dauran.

Ish stage me spawn me se fruit nikalne ki samay ko kahte hai. Iss process me mushroom grow hone ke liye fresh air ki jarurat padti hai. Issliye aap room me exhaust fans bhi laga sakte ho. Lekin exhaust fans floor se 5-6 inch uppor lagane honge. Din me kam se kam 6 ghanta fresh air deni hoti hai. First one hour fresh air with exhaust fan phir one hour khali fresh air, phir one hour ke liye room band. Isstarah se 3 cycles puri karni hai puri din last hour fresh air plus exhaust fan on karna hai. Iss tarah se aap apni mushroom ki growth ke hisab se cycling bada bhi sakte ho. 8 se 10 hour ka cycle puri din me de sakte ho. Ish stage aur 25 din me lagenge mushrooms ko grow karne ke liye.

Marketing: 25 days ke bad apki mushroom puri tarah grow kar jayenge aur aap ise thodkar market me fresh bech sakte ho ya isse pani se dhokar pack karke wholesale me bech sakte ho. Ek bag se aap 3 bar mushroom thodkar bech sakte ho. Wholesale rate apko 200 se 250 Rs mil jayenge. Aap agar market me supply karenge ya bechenge to apko 300 se 350 Rs tak bhi rates mil sakti hai aur usse jyada bhi quality ke upper depend karti hai.

Mushroom farming bahut hi sensitive farming hai isme fungal infection aur bahut sare bimari ke bajah se mushroom farming me kabhi-kabhi mushroom ki grow thik se nahi hoti ya spawn mar jate hai issliye bahut hygiene maintain karke, temperature, humidity ka bhi dyan rakhke iski farming karni chahiye khas karke bina training ke nahi karni chahiye.

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